Today, more than 1,000 clinical trials are on-going worldwide to uncover the potential of MSCs. Thus far, encouraging results have been published1; stem cell treatments have been proven safe and capable of repairing damage caused by stroke and heart disease. MSCs have also been used in combination with HSCs as a dual therapy to promote faster engraftment of HSCs and to reduce immune system complications2.

Although there is evidence that MSC can change to certain types of EC (not stem cells), these cells cannot be changed into Epithelial Stem Cells (EpSC). The difference between EpSC and EC is that EpSC can differentiate into all different EC types such as skin, cornea, lining of the gut, etc. on demand. Whereas ECs have already reached terminal differentiation so these cells cannot be further differentiated into other EC types when needed. Thus, MSC and EpSC cannot be replaced by each other.

Types of Stem Cells

Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs)

Epithelial Stem Cells (EpSCs)

Potential Treatment for

Tissue repair

  • Cardiovascular diseases(e.g. Cardiac muscle repair)
  • Orthopaedic applications(Osteoarthritis, cartilage and tendon repair)
  • Pulmonary fibrosis
  • Stroke
  • Neurodegenerative diseases:
    • Autism spectrum disorder (ASD)
    • Alzheimer's disease
    • Parkinson's disease
    • Cerebral palsy and paralysis
    • Global developmental delay
  • Spinal cord injury
  • Liver regeneration from liver failure

Hscs Engraftment Support

  • Shorten time of engraftment
  • Reduce immune system complications

Immune modulation

  • Prevention and treatment of graft versus host disease (GvHD)
  • Diabetes: Type 1 and 2
  • HIV
  • Crohn’s disease

Wounds/soft tissue repair

  • Disorder of upper respiratory system (eg: Repair and regeneration of bronchial epithelium for smokers)
  • Surface ulcer (Diabetic)
  • Various types of burn
  • Tissue trauma
  • Skin wounds
  • Epidermal reconstitution

Organ Lining Regeneration

  • Disorder of upper respiratory system (eg: Repair and regeneration of bronchial epithelium for smokers)
  • Liver lining
  • Pancreatic lining
  • Gastrointestinal lining

Eye Conditions

  • Corneal dermoid
  • Corneal scars and opacities
  • Corneal ulcers
  • Dry eye syndromes
  • Eye injury (eg. Chemical burn)
  • Limbal deficiency
  • Limbal corneal insufficiency syndrome
  • Macular degenerative diseases:
    • Age related
    • Myopic
    • Stargardt's macular dystrophy
  • Ocular surface disease
  • Pterygium
  • Ocular damage due to stevens johnson syndrome